Diwali Bonanza by the Government: Red Carpet for Foreign Investors

By November 23, 2015 December 20th, 2019 No Comments
government of India, on the eve of Diwali, announced foreign direct investment
(FDI) related reforms in 15 sectors.
The proposed reforms have come in background of major political setback which
the NDA led government faced in Bihar and are seen as a statement by the government
that irrespective of such setbacks, the government will continue on its path of
development. The reforms aim to rationalize and simplify the foreign investment
and provide a strong sign of development to the foreign investors.

A formal official notification for the proposed changes is awaited and desirable as the present changes need clarity.  

Construction Development Sector

real estate sector has been facing slowdown for 3-4 years now and to revive the
sector the Government has done away with the requirement of minimum built up
area of 20,000 square meters of the target project and minimum capitalization
of USD 5 million.

government has relaxed the conditions of exit in as much as for an investor to
exit, it will have to either service a lock in period of 3 years or may exit
once the trunk infrastructure (road, water supply, drainage etc) are completed.
However, in case where the exit is by way of transfer of shares from a non
resident to a non resident, without involving any remittance from out of India,
the above conditions will also not apply.

of the prohibited activities for foreign investment has been real estate
business, which has been defined to mean dealing in land and immovable property
with a view to earning profit without any development. It has been further
clarified that earning of rent/income on lease of property not amounting to
transfer will not amount to real estate business.

It is however not clear as to whether
a company owning developed properties whose gross revenue only consists of rental
from the properties will be able to accept foreign investment, since the same
does not fall within the definition of ‘construction projects’ although the
same has been removed from the definition of ‘real estate business’.

100% foreign investment has been allowed in companies involved in management
and operation of townships, malls, shopping complexes and business centres. In
such cases, the foreign investor may assume control of the investee company
subject to a lock in period of 3 years and provided the property is not
transferred for a lock in period of 3 years. 

Defense Sector

Currently, foreign investment
up to 49% is allowed in the Defence Sector under the approval route with a
sublimit of 24% for portfolio investment and investment by foreign venture
capital investors (“FVCIs”).
Further, approval of the Cabinet Committee on Security is required to go beyond
With government expecting a
flurry of development in the defense sector, the government has permitted
foreign investment up to 49% under automatic route without any sublimit for
portfolio investment and investment by FVCIs i.e. portfolio investment and
investment by FVCIs will be allowed up to permitted automatic route level of
49%. Further, in the case the foreign investment is in excess of 49%, the same
will be considered by Foreign Investment Promotion Board (“FIPB”).
reforms in the defense sector are a welcome move. The defense sector is anyways
subject to industrial license under the Industries (Development &
Regulation) Act, 1951. Obtaining the said license is itself a robust and time
consuming process. Further, the requirement of obtaining FIPB approval, for
investments up to 49%, was an additional step to be complied with. With the
liberalization of the sector, for investment up to 49%, no prior approval of
FIPB would be required and thus resulting in reduction of an additional step,
providing administrative ease to the investors.
Private Sector Banking

to the defense sector, in private sector banking FDI up to 74% is permitted
(49% under automatic route and approval route beyond 49% and up to 74%) with a
sublimit of 49% for portfolio investment. The government has now permitted full
fungibility for foreign investment in private banks i.e. no sub limits for portfolio

The reforms have been embraced by the
private sector banks which had already exhausted the limit of maximum 49%
investment by FPI’s. The banks were forced to look into alternate ways of
raising funds. However, with the reforms, such private sector banks will have
headroom to substantially increase FPI holdings.  

Retail and E-commerce

has been clarified that a manufacturer in India will be permitted to sell its
product through wholesale or retain, including through e-commerce, without any

Although merely a clarification, it
poses a question as to whether a manufacturer having foreign investment will
itself have to own and operate an e-commerce website or it can do through its
subsidiary/group company also. 

extant FDI policy on companies involved in single brand retail trading mandates
that in case the foreign investment is beyond 51%, sourcing of 30% of the value
of goods purchased would be done from India and reckoned from the date of
receipt of FDI i.e. beginning 1st April of the year during which the first
tranche of FDI is received. The government has now specified that the aforesaid
sourcing shall be reckoned from the opening of the first store. Further, for
‘state-of-art’ and ‘cutting-edge technology’, sourcing norms may be relaxed
with government approval.

government has also permitted the entities, which have permission to undertake
single brand retail trading, to undertake retail activity through e-commerce.

under the extant FDI policy, products are required to be sold under the same
brand internationally and non-resident entities are permitted to undertake
single brand retail trading either as owner of the brand or legally tenable
agreement with the brand owner. The government has now clarified that the said
requirements will not be applicable in case of FDI in Indian brands.

the extant FDI policy a wholesale/cash & carry trader cannot open
retail shops to sell to the consumer directly. The government has now permitted
a single entity to undertake both the activities of single brand retail trading
and wholesale cash and carry trading provided that conditions/requirements
under the FDI policy with respect to wholesale cash & carry trading and
single brand retail trading are complied with separately.


limited liability partnership entities engaged in sectors where foreign
investment is permitted under automatic route and without any conditions, no
prior government approval is now required for accepting foreign investment. Similar
reform has been extended for downstream investment by LLPs into a company or

Companies owned and controlled by Non
Resident Indians

Pursuant to press note 7 of 2015, dated June 3, 2015,
investments made by NRIs on non-repatriation basis were to be treated at par
with domestic investments made by residents.

Pursuant to the reforms, the special dispensation is
extended to companies, trusts and partnership firms, which are incorporated
outside India but are owned and controlled by NRI’s.  Such entities owned and controlled by NRIs
will be treated at par with NRI’s for investment in India and by virtue of
press note 7 of 2015, it may be stated that this will also be treated at par
with domestic investments by residents.

Other major changes

(A) 100%
FDI, under automatic route, has been allowed in tea / coffee / rubber /
cardamom / palm oil & olive oil plantations;
(B) Infusion
of foreign investment into an Indian company which does not have any operations
and any downstream investments will not require any approval, for undertaking
activities which are under automatic route and which have no FDI-linked
performance conditions, regardless of the amount or extent of foreign
(C) Currently,
FIPB considers proposals having total foreign equity inflow up to Rs. 3000
crore and proposals above Rs. 3000 crore are considered by Cabinet Committee on
Economic Affairs. In order to achieve faster approvals on most of the
proposals, it has been decided that the threshold limit for FIPB approval may
be increased to Rs.5000 crore.

changes seem to be in line with the ‘Make in India’ initiative launched by the
government and, overall, are pulsating and will help India to enhance its
position as favourable investment destination. While, the detailed press note
is still awaited, it is expected that the aforesaid reforms should result in
flurry of investments especially in Construction Development Sector, Defence
Sector, Private Sector Banking and Single Brand Retail Trading. It is however
to be mentioned that the changes seem to have been made in a haste and need lot
of clarity to ensure the compliance and certainty.  


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